نوع المستند : المقالة الأصلية


Cairo University


The subject matter of this paper is to see whether the ideals of Enlightenment can any longer serve as our guide today. To find out the answer one has to identify these ideals. In a nutshell, one could say that they rotate around one principle, that is, the sovereignty of human reason. And this sovereignty has been tackled and clarified by Kant in his essay entitled "An answer to the question: What is Enlightenment?" which was published in a Berlin monthly in 1784. In this essay Kant defines Enlightenment as "man's quitting the nonage accompanied by himself. Nonage is the inability of making use of one's own reason without the guidance of another. This nonage is occasioned by one's self, when the cause of it is not from want of understanding but of resolution and courage to use one's own reason without the guidance of another. Have courage to make use of thy own reason is therefore the dictum of Enlightenment.